Cannabidiol (CBD’s) are one of the main constituents of the cannabis plant. Medical marijuana is CBD rich and is said to have an antiinflammatory and therapeutic effect on animals. This paper highlights the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological actions, therapeutic uses and side effects of cannabinoids. Important advances have taken place in cannabinoid research over the last decade because scientists have found out the mechanism in how they work in the body.
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Cannabinoids and how they can be delivered
It is essential that structural features of cannabinoids are studied so that they can bind to cannabinoid receptors efficiently. Cannabinoid receptors allow cannabinoids to work in the body. Better ways in which cannabinoids are administered need to be discovered. It may be that cannabinoids are delivered by aerosol inhalation, buccal absorption, rectal suppository, skin patch, intravenous injection or even direct application, e.g. to the eye and spinal cord. More recently, water-soluble cannabinoid has been synthesised to make CBD oil.
Cannabinoids can reduce spasticity
Cannabinoids have been proven to decrease problems arising from MS and spinal cord damage. Although spasticity is improved because of CBD’s, more studies need to take place in terms of looking at how these compounds can be delivered. Psychotropic effects are avoided with CBD because it is in fact tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that causes them. THC is another constituent of the cannabis plant and it is responsible for giving you the ‘high feeling’ when smoked. The effects of THC are shown to have psychoactive effects on the people who take it. Cannabis extract is included in cannabis products and they can give pain relief to people with dravets syndrome
How cannabinoids get to their destination
Overall, CBD’s have been shown to improve spasticity but there is need for future studies for the development of strategic plan that involves the separation between the wanted therapeutic effects and the unwanted effects of cannabinoids. One strategy could involve the delivery of cannabinoids to the CB1 receptor in the brain. Another could involve their delivery to the spinal cord, through the epidural route. One more way of getting cannabinoids to work is to activate the endogenous cannabinoid system indirectly by increasing the number of cannabinoids at extracellular level through enzymic hydrolysis.