Photogenetic methodology enables direct targeting of specific neural circuit elements for inhibition or excitation while spanning timescales from the acute (milliseconds) to the chronic (many days or more). Although the impact of this temporal versatility and cellular specificity has been greater for basic science than clinical research, it is natural to ask whether the dynamic patterns of neural circuit activity discovered to be causal in adaptive or maladaptive behaviors could become targets for treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases.
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Here, we consider the landscape of ideas related to therapeutic targeting of circuit dynamics. Specifically, the paper will highlight optical, ultrasonic, and magnetic concepts for the targeted control of neural activity, preclinical/clinical discovery opportunities, and recently reported optogenetically guided clinical outcomes.
Within the regarded study that we have provided above, mood and anxiety disorders are being closely being examined for comorbidity (having one or more disease at the same time) comparing depression and anxiety. The study states that up to 90% of patients that experience anxiety will usually encounter depression at conjoining times, or vice versa.
The issue with the diagnoses of either disorder can be difficult to distinguish. Coupled with this, the same medication can also be used for both anxiety and depression. Mood and anxiety disorders display brain based disorders that result in dysregulation of specific neural circuits found within the limbic-cortical system. This in hand controls mood, stress capabilities and emotional control.
Pharmacological therapies for emotional learning and circuits show that there were also compelling changes in action when anxiety and mood disorders were evaluated in terms of talk therapy.
The study above highlights that that their recent findings in regards to comprehending the neural circuit processes with anxiety and mood disorders is hopeful for future studies to begin. The route of research on this topic hopes to discover new treatments for mood and anxiety.