Cannabis has been used for years for the treatment of several diseases. CBD is the non-psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, while THC is the non-psychoactive ingredient of cannabis. The two ingredients have anticonvulsant effects in most animals; they are, however, pro-convulsant in some other animal models used. No sizable record is available about chronic animal models. Both THC and cannabis are anticonvulsant in many animal models.
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The tolerability of THC is limited by its psychotropic effects, and many animal models have recorded the anticonvulsant effects of this unique product. Scientific studies have not been able to detect the antiepileptic mechanism of CBD.
The mechanism may, however, involve equilibrative nucleoside transporter, using the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55, the transient receptor potential of ankyrin type 1 channel, the alpha-3 and alpha-1 glycine receptors, the 5-HT1a receptor and the transient receptor potential of melastatin type 8 channel. CBD has been discovered to have both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects continue reading to find out more about the potential therapeutic effect of cannabidiol in neuropsychiatric disorders including epilepsy.
C. sativa contains over 80 terpenophenolic compounds, which are all called cannabinoids. These compounds are available in various relative proportions, which is determined by the particular strain. The compounds are, and their characterization and isolation have led to several studies revealing the psychotropic effects of the product are consequent of THC produced from the acid derivative obtained after heating.
The first sample of CBD was obtained in 1940. And its structure was elucidated in 1963. THC, on the other hand, was isolated in 1964. For over 30 years after that, a lot of pharmacological and chemical researches focused on this compound.
The special attention paid to this substance is due to the special psychotropic activity it has, as well as its associated sociopolitical ramifications. Later in the later part of the 1980s, THC was discovered to bind to two G-protein-coupled cell membrane receptors, which are labeled as cannabinoid type 1 and cannabinoid type 2 receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors respectively.
It has to bind to these receptors to exert its effects. Later, 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, both of which are CB2 and CB1 endogenous ligands respectively were seen in animals and labeled endocannabinoids.
The major source of CB1 receptors in the human brain; it can equally be found in several peripheral tissues. CB2 receptors, on the other hand, can be found mainly in hematopoietic cells and immune cells. They can also be up-regulated in several other tissues. In the case of epilepsy, cannabinoid receptor expression may be dysregulated.
Many prominent English neurologists in the 19th century, like Gowers and Reynolds, used cannabis for treating epilepsy. Even at that, its use for this purpose had remained limited. It has recorded several anecdotal successes, but it is rarely mentioned in epilepsy-related English texts between the late 19th century and the mid-20th century.
Up to four controlled studies were carried out in the 1970s with each of them examining the effect of CBD on epilepsy and seizure. Two out of these studies recorded only limited improvement. Even at that, all the four studies were limited by the methodological flaws they suffered, like inadequate blinding and small sample size.
Cannabidiol has several biological effects with multiple sites of action located in the nervous system. The favorable side-effects profile and the available anti-seizure properties of this natural product forms the basis for its reliability in epilepsy treatment. Several studies about its effect on psychiatric disease, neurodegeneration and neuronal injury all suggest that CBD has a positive effect on several nervous system disorders, which may complicate the lives of those having epilepsy.