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Cannabinoids are the main constituent of the cannabis plant which contain a number of chemicals including Cannabidiol (CBD), non psychoactive, and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), psychoactive. Products made with cannabis derivatives are becoming increasingly popular now because they have anti inflammatory properties that can be used to treat a range of animal disorders and diseases. This paper will look at the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and mental health. This review will also be highlighting how antipsychotic medication in the form of CBD treatment can be used for the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality. Evidence has suggested that the endocannabinoid system and schizophrenia have a close relationship. The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), and it allows for cannabinoids, THC and endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG. Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids that are naturally found in the body. Schizophrenic symptoms in the brain impacts the release of numerous neurotransmitters in various systems and cytokines that are secreted from glial cells. This basically means that the endocannabinoid system is strongly involved in neuropsychiatric disorders.
Cannabis may change the endocannabinoid signalling system and pose a threat in a person developing psychosis. Previous studies have found a fault in the endocannabinoid system such as changed expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors or unnatural levels of AEA and 2-AG this means that cannabis could actually be used as a therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia by showing positive psychotic symptoms.
Clinical trials in this study have shown that CBD’s could possibly be used a therapeutic for people with schizophrenia due its non psychoactive nature. However, more studies will need to take place to determine if CBD’s can be made into antipsychotic drugs to treat people with psychotic disorders.art00003