© 2018 Miraculo Inc. All Rights Reserved
Cannabinoid receptor signalling in neurodegenerative diseases: a potential role for membrane fluidity disturbance
Cannabinoids are found in the marijuana plant (cannabis sativa) and are said to be effective in pain management from pain symptoms such as multiple sclerosis and nausea and vomiting. A cannabinoid is one of a great collection of complex chemical compounds that naturally occur in the body and operates on major cannabinoid receptors in cells that mediates neurotransmitter release in the brain. Cannabinoids for these receptors include the endocannabinoid system, that are produced in the body by animals, the phytocannabinoids in cannabis and some other plants, and synthetic cannabinoids. The main endogenous cannabinoid is the plant cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive chemical in cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another main constituent of the plant and produces a non psychotic effect. Cannabinoids have a therapeutic potential no doubt, however they are yet to be studied in depth to treat a wide range of human pathologies. This paper will look at cannabinoids potential for neurodegenerative diseases such as membrane fluidity disturbances.
Cannabinoids may be made into novel therapeutics to treat neurodegenerative diseases
Type‐1 cannabinoid receptor 1 is the most known G‐protein‐coupled receptor (GPCR) in the neuronal system. Cannabinoid receptor 1 and its endogenous agonists, the deemed endocannabinoids, are apart of an old neurotransmissioning system that has an important role in the ability in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory syndromes like Alzheimer’s disorders, Parkinson’s disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. For this logic, studies on the analgesic plausibility of drugs changing the endogenous tone of endocannabinoid systems is very extreme. Numerous GPCRs reside within subdomains of the plasma membranes that hold potent doses of cholesterol. Here, the idea that alters in membrane fluidity change the ability of the endocannabinoid network, as well as development of specific neurodegenerative disorders, is characterized. To this part, the effect of membrane cholesterol on membrane abilities and hence on neurodegenerative disorders, as well as on CB1 signalling in vitro and on cannabinoid receptor 1 reliant neurotransmission within the basal ganglia, is talked about. Overall, current reports point to the membrane culture as a crucial controller of signal transduction activated by cannabinoid 1 receptor and calls for future research looking at to better clarify the hand of membrane lipids to endocannabinoid transmissioning. The conclusions of these reports might be taken advantage of for the advancement of novel therapeutics able to fight syndromes related to unnatural activity of cannabinoid receptor 1.
Further studies into cannabinoids are needed
Overall, membrane culture seems to be crucial for the controlling of signal transduction pathways activated by G protein‐coupled receptors like cannabinoid 1 receptor. Despite the three dimensional complicated nature of these proteins, researchers know from the paralleled natures of cannabinoid 1 with cannabinoid 2 receptors that just one amino acid remnants can direct receptor abilities, calling for a focus on the plasma membrane as a top baller in ligand recognition on the cell surface. Future research looking at clarifying the effect of these notions for the therapeutics of syndromes related to abnormal activity of cannabinoid 1 receptor are wanted to inspire in the near future.Maccarrone_et_al-2011-British_Journal_of_Pharmacology