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Characterization of cannabinoid-induced relief of neuropathic pain in rat models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals derived from the cannabis plant (cannabis sativa). Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of these chemicals and research has shown that it has anti inflammatory properties to heal animals with nervous system disorders. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is another one of these compounds that wields a psychoactive effect in animals. Cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) are found in the endogenous cannabinoid system and allow cannabinoids to bind and do their job in the body. This paper will look at how cannabinoids can offer salvation from those suffering at the hands of neuropathic pain in rat models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Cannabinoids have a therapeutic effect in those suffering with diabetes
Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus with a massive effect on patients’ quality of life, and it remains badly treated. Cannabinoids relieve the signs of diabetic neuropathy in different experimental models, including streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats, and they may also alleviate neuropathic signs in type 2 diabetic animals. This study compares the impact of the nonspecific cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats (type 2 diabetes) and in STZ-injected Wistar rats (type 1 diabetes). WIN (or its vehicle) was either systemically administered at a non-psychoactive dose or locally injected. Selective CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid antagonists were used to describe WIN antineuropathic impacts.
Cannabinoids may be more effective than existing diabetes medication
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats showed mechanical allodynia but not thermal hyperalgesia. WIN alleviated mechanical allodynia in both models of diabetes. In STZ-treated rats, both cannabinoid receptors were included, whereas in ZDF rats, WIN impacts seemed to mainly involve the triggering of CB1 receptors. Greater doses of WIN were needed to massively alleviate mechanical allodynia upon intraplantar administration in ZDF vs. STZ-injected rats. Cannabinoids, acting on systemic and/or peripheral receptors, may just as a new therapeutic alternative for symptom management in painful neuropathy associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, these conclusions highlight the need for appropriate selection of diabetic experimental models because the results from studies in STZ-induced diabetic rodents might not be useful in all diabetic situations.