The cannabis plants contains over 100 compounds. These compounds are called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids can act on several body organs. One of which is the cardiovascular system. The oral and inhalation intake of cannabinoids are associated with diverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. This is due to the interaction with cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). This paper reviews the impact of different routes of cannabinoids administered on AS pathogenesis.
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Cannabinoids include two major substances. These are cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Both of these cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system in the body. It interacts by affecting CB1 and CB2 receptors and their activity. Low doses of THC have anti-inflammatory effects. This inhibits the progression of AS lesions and it can alter the immune response during AS formation. CBD (the non-psychoactive compound), can inhibit lipid oxidation. The relationship between CBD and AS is of great importance and is a vital step in the development of AS.
The interaction of cannabinoids with their receptors are also of significant relevance. The use of rimonabant (an anti obesity drug) acts against CB1. This leads to a decrease in:
CB2 stimulation can reduce inflammation and prevent the accumulation of harmful lipids in the body.
Marijuana inhalation can lead to the development of angina and atherosclerosis. Especially in patients with coronary artery disease. People who smoke marijuana with myocardial infarction have an increased risk of death. This is compared to non marijuana smokers. These effects may be due to the harmful particulate gaseous materials resulting from marijuana plant combustion.
Cannabinoid products have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Stimulation of CB2 receptors or CB1 have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis development. Those who suffer from cardiovascular disease show serious side effects when smoking rather than ingesting medical marijuana. Despite the promising effects of CBD on atherosclerosis, it is imperative to formulate specific CBD therapies based on long-term studies within suitable clinical and legal recommendations.