Cannabis plants contain certain compounds called cannabinoids that react to numerous organs in the body. The oral intake or inhalation of cannabinoid-containing substances can achieve diverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis (AS) through the interaction with CB1 and CB2 which are the cannabinoid receptors. The present paper reviewed the potential consequences of different routes of cannabinoid administration and AS pathogenesis.
Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the two major substances included in Cannabinoids. Both can cooperate with the endocannabinoid system found in the body by affecting their receptors, CB1 and CB2. Small dosages of oral THC have an anti-inflammatory effect, which can inhibit the progression of AS lesions, and it can adjust the immune systems response during AS formation. Furthermore, CBD can constrain lipid oxidation, which constitutes a vital step in the development of AS. Actually, the connection between CBD and AS is of great importance since the CBD oil contains high concentrations of CBD and low THC content.
How cannabinoids interact with their receptors has significant relevance. The use of rimonabant, which acts against CB1, led to a decline in the chance of developing atherosclerotic lesions, decline of oxidative damage, and a marked reduction of injuries taking place in the blood vessel wall. On the other hand, CB2 stimulation is associated with attenuation of inflammation in AS and prevention of the undesirable accumulation of damaging lipids in the body.
In patients with coronary artery disease, inhalation of marijuana can pave the way to the development of angina and progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, marijuana-smoking patients with myocardial infarction have a higher risk of death when compared to nonmarijuana smokers. These effects could be down to the damaging gaseous materials resulting from marijuana plant ignition.
Cannabinoid products have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Stimulation of CB2 receptors or inhibition of CB1 have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis development. On the other hand, marijuana smoking could have serious side effects, particularly in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Despite the promising effects of CBD on atherosclerosis, it is crucial to formulate specific CBD therapies based on long-term studies within suitable clinical and legal recommendations.