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The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication
Cannabinoids are found in the marijuana plant (cannabis sativa) and are said to be effective in pain management from pain symptoms such as multiple sclerosis and breast cancer. A cannabinoid is one of a great collection of complex chemical compounds that naturally occur in the body and operates on major cannabinoid receptors in cells that mediates neurotransmitter release in the brain. Endogenous cannabinoids for these receptors include the endocannabinoid system, that are produced in the body by animals, the phytocannabinoids in cannabis and some other plants, and synthetic cannabinoids. The main cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive chemical in cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another main constituent of the plant and produces a non psychotic effect. This paper will review the endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic value in cancer treatment related symptoms such as nausea and vomiting.
Therapeutic efficacy of cannabinoids
The endocannabinoid system is flawed in a number of physiological and pathological syndromes (inflammation, immunomodulation, analgesia, cancer and others). The primary active constituent of marijuana, THC, yields its effects via triggering of cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors. Cannabinoid 1 receptors are communicated at peak levels in the central nervous system, whereas cannabinoid 2 receptors are quite potent through out, although not exclusively, in cells of the immune network. Endocannabinoids are manufactured in the cell membrane from phospholipid precursors. The two top described endocannabinoids discovered to date are anandamide (AEA) and 2‐arachidonoylglycerol (2‐AG). This study takes a look at the interaction of the endocannabinoid network and anti‐tumour behaviour, such as reduction of tumour development, of the cannabinoids in various types of cancer. This study will look at how triggering the endocannabinoid network affects breast, prostate and bone cancers in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Vivo means in living organisms, while vitro means in a test tube. The analgesic potential of cannabinoids for cancer, as pointed out in clinical experiments, is also reviewed. Discovery of secure and efficient cures to regulate and better cancer therapy is important to improve quality of life and decrease unnecessary pain in people with cancer. In this regard, marijuana‐like chemicals offer a soothing agent potential for a remedy of breast, prostate and bone cancer in subjects. Further basic studies on anti‐cancer abilities of cannabinoids as well as clinical trials of cannabinoid therapeutic effectiveness in breast, prostate and bone cancer is therefore allowed.
Cannabinoids may have anti tumoral effects
Despite the requirement for further in vitro and in vivo experiments, the literature is almost unanimous in indicating that cannabinoids and endocannabinoids decrease the development of cancer in both in vivo preclinical and in vitro model networks. The requirement for additional clinical experiments of cannabinoid therapeutic effectiveness in cancer seems beyond doubt; just a little amount of studies have reviewed the impacts of cannabinoid in reducing cancer suffering, in conflicting views to the extensive literature lending a hand to effectiveness of cannabinoids as anti‐emetics. More so, further studies required to explore the therapeutic possibility of multimodal therapeutic plans that intertwine cannabinoids with other commonly used prescriptions (opioids) or employ numerous plants cannabinoids in combination. The application of numerous pharmacotherapies in consolidation might up the likelihood of synergistic relationships between chemicals with different individualistic methods of action; such mixtures may give off a more beneficial analgesic ratio in people with cancer when paired with conventional therapeutics, concluding in the development of pain relief and anti‐cancer impacts with fewer adverse events. Furthermore, as cannabinoids weaken neuropathy made by cancer chemotherapy via cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 reliant actions, the potential remains that cannabinoids in cahoots with chemotherapy might better both antitumor mechanisms of chemotherapy and lessen unwarranted side effects. Future research on cannabinoid anti‐cancer abilities as well as clinical experiments reviewing cannabinoid effectiveness in cancer are needed before cannabinoid use can be established and accepted as efficient accessories to cancer therapy.Guindon_et_al-2011-British_Journal_of_Pharmacology
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